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中国古代陶瓷

中国古代陶瓷

新石器时代陶器

   陶器的发明,是新石器时代的重要标志之一。随着原始农业生产的出现和定居生活的需要,人类学会了制作陶器。我国新石器时代的文化遗存分布广泛,陶器制作几乎遍及中华大地,品种十分丰富,许多产品装饰技法讲究,制作精美,具有鲜明的时代性和原始艺术特征。

商周原始瓷的出现及汉魏(吴)两晋南北朝的陶瓷

原始青瓷至晚出现于商代,盛行于西周、春秋、战国,西汉以后衰落。东汉时期,成熟青瓷成功烧造,至三国(吴)、西晋有进一步发展。东晋、南朝、隋代烧造产品有所扩大,但产品质量有下降趋势。

至晚从北朝开始,北方青瓷业走向成熟,并烧造出不少优质产品。

唐代彩色釉陶器的盛烧和五代瓷器的发展

  唐代彩色釉陶器的制作标志着我国古代制陶工艺在这时期的突飞猛进,而唐五代南北方瓷业的争相斗艳更反映了中国古代烧瓷业的迅速发展。南方越窑青瓷烧造的精益求精,北方邢窑白瓷制作的尽善尽美,代表了南北两大不同瓷系的烧造水平。

百花争艳的宋辽金元陶瓷

10世纪后期至14世纪中期的近300年间,中国陶瓷业进入一个全盛时期。在宋代汝、官、哥、定、钧五大名窑烧造一代佳品的前后各个时期,南北各地名窑也以各自不同的制作技法向世人展示各种精彩纷呈的佳作,并在烧造中形成各种体系。

北方辽瓷和西夏瓷的烧造,使这一时期的陶瓷中增添了许多少数民族独特艺术风格的作品。

宋元明清景德镇瓷器

  宋代的景德镇以烧造青白瓷驰名海内。元代大批成熟的青花瓷制作使得景德镇地位迅速上升。明初,专门为皇家烧瓷的御器厂在此兴建并长期烧造,制作了无数精美产品,当地官、民窑在传统烧造基础上不断推陈出新,因而名品迭出,到了清代成为举世公认的“瓷都”。

明清景德镇以外地区的陶瓷器

   明清陶瓷产地几乎遍及全国各地。福建德化窑白瓷、江苏宜兴紫砂器、广东石湾窑。。釉陶、福建漳州窑白瓷等均属有名的陶瓷品种。在北方地区,山西的法华陶器、河北磁州窑系瓷器等等,均有广泛的烧造。

 

AHCIENT CHINESE CERAMIS

Neolithic Pottery

Pottery is an important innovation of Neolithic times. Plant domestication and agriculture gave rise to a settled life,and it was at this stage that people discovered how to make pottery.In Neolithic times pottery was produced in great varieties almost everywhere in China. The distinctive decoration and the Nelithic times.

The Emergence of Proto--porcelain in the Shang and Zhou Dynasties

Ceramics of the Han,Wei (wu State),Western Jin,and Eastern Jin Dynasties and The nothern and Southern Dynasties Period.

Proto-celadon appeared no later than Shang dynasty(ca. 16th-11th century BC)and was produced in large quantities in the Zhou peiod(11th-3rd century BC).In the second and first ceturies BC the production of celdon delined.In the first century AD mature celadon was achieved in southern kilns, and in the third and fourth centuries further refinements were made.Prodution increased in the next two centuries but quality declined slightly.

By the fourth AD mature celadon had produced at kilns in North China,and many quality pieces were made there.

Polychrome-glazed Pottery in the Tang Dynasty

The Development of Pocrelain in the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties Period

The polychrome-glazed pottery of the Tang Dynasty represents a dramatic advance in ceramic production The porcelain industry also underwent rapid development in this priod and in the succeeding Five Dynasties period, a development was spurred by the compitition between the south and the north and the Xing-ware white porcelain of the north were the highest achievements of the two regions.

Ceramics of Song,Liao,JIn,and Yuan Dynasties

For a peiod of more than three hundred years,from the late tenth century to the mid fourteenth century,Chinese ceramic industry flourished spectacularly.During the Song dynasty.the Ru,Guan,Ge,Ding,and Jun kilns manufactured the five famous porcelain for the imperial court,and at the same time building up different systems of the north produced many distinctive wares with various techniques,building up different systems of porcelain production.’

Porcelain manufactured in the North China Under Liao and Xixia rule(10th--12th century)broughtt influences into the ceramic industry.

Jingdezhen Porcelain of the Song,Yuan,Ming,and Qing Dynasties

Jingdezhen in Jiangxi Province ,known in the Song period fr its blushwhiteqingbai)procelain,rapidly came to dominate procelain production after it began to mass-produce underglaze blue wares in the Yuan dynasty,and these kilns introduced a larqe number of fine wares.In the Qing dynasty many more new wares were created,among which some were masterpieces in history.By that time Jingdezhen had been famous for porelain throughout the world.

Ming and Qing Ceramics from Places Other than Jingdezhen

Geramics were produced all over china during the Ming and Qing periods.Famous wares province,Yixing Zisha(“purple clay”)stonewares from Jiangsu Province,flambe Shiwan wares from Guangdong Province ,and white mass-produced wares were fa hua wares from Shanxi Province and Cizhou wares from Hebei Province.

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